Following an extensive study carried out by the Office of the High Representative at the request of the Peace Implementation Council, the coordinating structure of the International Community in Bosnia and Herzegovina was “streamlined” in 2002 so as to eliminate overlapping effort and responsibilities and increase effectiveness. As part of this process a Board of Principals was established, under the chairmanship of the High Representative, to serve as the main coordinating body of International Community activity in BiH. The Board of Principals meets once a week in Sarajevo. Its permanent members are OHR, EUFOR, NATO HQ Sarajevo, OSCE, UNHCR and the European Union. International financial institutions such as the World Bank, the IMF and the UNDP are also regular participants at the Board of Principals.
The position of High Representative was created under the General Framework Agreement for Peace in BiH (Dayton Peace Agreement) of 14 December 1995 to oversee implementation of the civilian aspects of the Peace Agreement. The mission of the High Representative is to work with the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the International Community to ensure that Bosnia and Herzegovina is a peaceful, viable state on course to European integration.
The UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) started its operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the war, with one of the biggest relief operations ever organized. In 1995 UNHCR was entrusted with assisting the government in the implementation of Annex VII of the Dayton Peace Agreement. Together with the local authorities and in cooperation with other international partners, UNHCR facilitates the return of both refugees and displaced persons to their homes of origin.
The EU Force in BiH (EUFOR) took over from the NATO-led SFOR on 2 December 2004. EUFOR has full authority to fulfil the role specified in Annexes 1A and 2 of the Dayton Agreement and contribute to a safe and secure environment in Bosnia and Herzegovina. EUFOR operates under a renewable one-year mandate from the UN Security Council, and its deployment is reviewed by the Council of the EU at regular intervals. As the security situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina has stabilised it has been possible to reduce EUFOR troop numbers systematically. The mission currently has a troop strength of around 600, with the capacity to draw at short notice on over-the-horizon forces from elsewhere in the region should these be needed.
NATO Headquarters Sarajevo
NATO Headquarters Sarajevo was established in December 2005 with a mandate specifically focused on Defence Reform, an essential prerequisite for integration in European and international institutions, and a key element of national security. NATO Headquarters Sarajevo has worked to help BiH meet requirements for the NATO Partnership for Peace (PfP) programme and eventual NATO membership. It also undertakes operational tasks, including counter-terrorism while ensuring force protection and intelligence sharing with the EU.
In 2011 the offices of the EU Delegation and the EU Special Representative were brought together under a single head as part of the European Union’s policy of strengthening its presence in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
- The EU Delegation in Bosnia and Herzegovina was established on 10 July 1996, then as the Delegation of the European Commission. When the Treaty of Lisbon entered into force, on 1 December 2009, it changed its name to the Delegation of the European Union. Its role is to present, explain and implement EU policy, analyse and report on policies and developments, and conduct negotiations on behalf of the EU.
- The EU Special Representative ensures a coordinated and coherent EU approach to building self-sustaining peace and stability by helping Bosnia and Herzegovina to move beyond peace implementation towards European integration.
Bosnia and Herzegovina joined the World Bank in 1996 (with membership retroactive to 1993). In the immediate post-war period (1996-1999), a wave of emergency projects was prepared to help jump-start the reconstruction effort, including transport, power, de-mining, housing, health, education, public works, agriculture, and micro-credit sectors.
The Bank then shifted its efforts to fundamental structural reforms that are critical to establishing a viable market economy.
At the end of 2015, there were 11 investment projects, worth $420.4 million, under implementation.
As the primary instrument for early warning, conflict prevention, crisis management and post-conflict rehabilitation in Europe, the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) has played a major role in fostering a stable, peaceful and democratic Bosnia and Herzegovina. The OSCE began operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina under its Dayton mandate on 18 December 1995. Its key areas of focus have been to promote free, fair and democratic elections, promote the development of democratic, participatory and self-sustaining institutions at all levels of government, monitor human rights and fundamental freedoms and support the development of sustainable human rights institutions, and help Bosnia and Herzegovina to comply with its OSCE political-military commitments.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has been active in Bosnia and Herzegovina since 1996. UNDP BiH programmatic activities are guided by the United Nations Development Assistance Framework 2010-2014, which has been endorsed by the BiH Council of Ministers and the United Nations Country Team. Every two years UNDP produces a BiH Human Development Report and sectoral studies. It also provides expertise to BiH authorities.
Bosnia and Herzegovina joined the International Monetary Fund (IMF) on 14 December 1992. The IMF in BiH provides financial assistance through stand-by arrangements and also through the provision of technical assistance in a number of areas, such as banking supervision, taxation reform, development of treasuries and the improvement of public expenditure management, as well as the improvement of statistics.